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Georges Fragerolle

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Auguste-Georges-Prosper Fragerolle (11 March 1855 – 19 February 1920) was a French musician and composer.
Georges Fragerolle was born on 11 March 1855 in Paris, the son of wealthy merchants. He studied literature at the Collège Rollin, and obtained a degree in law. Against the advice of his parents, he tried to devote himself to opera, but failed to obtain admission to the Conservatoire de Paris.
Fragerolle joined the Hydropathes [fr] literary club. On 12 May 1880 he published an article on "Fumisme". "Fumisme" is a system of elaborate hoaxes used to expose hypocrites and deflate the pompous. It was often practiced by the Hydropathes. According to Fragerolle, fumisme
is to wit what operetta is to opéra-bouffe, caricature to cartoon, prunes to castor oil. To be considered a wit, it is sometimes enough to be an ass in a lion's skin; to be a good fumiste, it is often required to be a lion in an ass's skin. In the former case, the effect is direct, in the latter it is once, twice, often ten times reflected.
Fragerolle learned composition from Ernest Guiraud. He composed arrangements of work by contemporary poets such as Jean Richepin, and sang them to his own accompaniment. Fragerolle became the regular pianist at Le Chat Noir with Erik Satie. He composed most of the music and poetry of the shadow theater pieces, which he interpreted with a baritone voice. He was the maestro of Le Chat Noir and Hydropathes.
On 6 January 1890 Fragerolle produced a Nativity play, La Marche à l'Étoile, with an impressive set of paintings by Henri Rivière. The reception given to this novel concept was cautious at first, but it ended up by being a success. The play was accompanied by two organs, an oboe, a cello and percussion. Fragerolle sang part of the narrative. Fragerolle set to music Si vous voulez Madame by Émile Goudeau. His works were published by Enoch et Cie, who produced the material for the shadow shows. He died in Asnières on 19 February 1920